Ben Kenward

Lecturer in Psychology

I joined Oxford Brookes in 2016, prior to which I was a researcher in psychology at the Uppsala University Child and Baby Lab in Sweden, having completed a doctorate in animal behaviour in 2006 at Oxford University’s Behavioural Ecology Research Group.

My current research focus is on social behaviour in young children, including studies of moral development and the understanding of others’ actions. There are further details of my research interests on my personal home-page.



  • Kenward, B., Hellmer, K., Winter, L. S., & Eriksson, M. (2015). Four-year-olds’ strategic allocation of resources: Attempts to elicit reciprocation correlate negatively with spontaneous helping. Cognition, 136, 1-8.
  • Gredebäck, G., Kaduk, K., Bakker, M., Gottwald, J., Ekberg, T., Elsner, C., Reid., V., Kenward, B. (2015). The neuropsychology of infants’ pro-social preferences. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 106-113.
  • Kenward, B., & Östh, T. (2014). Five-year-olds punish antisocial adults. Aggressive Behavior. On-line first, doi: 10.1002/AB.21568. (PDF)
  • Kenward, B. & Gredebäck, G. 2013. Infants help a non-human agent. PLOS One. (Link)
  • Kenward, B. & Östh, T. 2012. Enactment of third-party punishment by 4-year-olds. Frontiers in Psychology. (Link)
  • Kenward, B. 2012. Over-imitating preschoolers believe unnecessary actions are normative and enforce their performance by a third party. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. (PDF)
  • Kenward, B. & Dahl, M. 2011. Preschoolers distribute resources according to recipients' moral status. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1054-1064. (PDF)
  • Kenward, B. & Nilsson, D. 2011. Catching of balls unexpectedly thrown and unexpectedly fired by cannon. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 113, 171-187. (PDF)
  • Kenward, B., Karlsson, M. & Persson, J. 2011. Over-imitation is better explained by norm learning than by distorted causal learning. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 278, 1239-1246. (link)
  • Kenward, B. 2010. 10-month infants visually anticipate the outcome of a learnt action. Infancy, 15, 337-361. (PDF)
  • Lopes, M., Melo, F., Kenward, B. & Santos-Victor, J. 2009. A computational model of social-learning mechanisms. Adaptive Behavior, 17, 467-483. (link)
  • Kenward, B., Folke, S., Holmberg, J., Johansson, A. & Gredebäck, G. 2009. Goal-directedness and decision making in infants. Developmental Psychology, 45, 809-819. (PDF)
  • Gredebäck, G., Theuring, C., Hauf, P. & Kenward, B. 2008. The microstructure of infants' gaze during perception of overt attention shifts. Infancy, 13, 533-543.

Other animals:

  • Kenward, B., Schloegl, C., Rutz, C., Weir, A. A. S., Bugnyar, T. & Kacelnik, A. 2011. On the evolutionary and ontogenetic origins of tool-oriented behaviour in New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides).Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 102, 870-877. (PDF)
  • Kenward, B., Rutz, C., Weir, A. A. S. & Kacelnik, A. 2006. Development of tool use in New Caledonian crows: inherited action patterns and social influence. Animal Behaviour, 72, 1329-1343. (PDF)
  • Kacelnik, A., Chappell, J., Weir, A. A. S. & Kenward, B. 2006. Cognitive adaptations for tool-related behaviour in New Caledonian crows. In: Comparative cognition: Experimental explorations of animal intelligence (Ed. by Wasserman, E. A. & Zentall, T. R.), pp. 515-528. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Kenward, B., Weir, A. A. S., Rutz, C. & Kacelnik, A. 2005a. Tool manufacture by naive juvenile crows. Nature, 433, 121-121. (PDF)
  • Kenward, B., Kenward, R. E. & Kacelnik, A. 2005b. An automatic technique for selective feeding and logging of individual wild squirrels. Ethology Ecology & Evolution, 17, 271-277.
  • Kenward, B., Rutz, C., Weir, A. A. S., Chappell, J. & Kacelnik, A. 2004a. Morphology and sexual dimorphism of the New Caledonian crow Corvus moneduloides, with notes on its behaviour and ecology. Ibis, 146, 652-660. (PDF)
  • Kenward, B., Wachtmeister, C. A., Ghirlanda, S. & Enquist, M. 2004b. Spots and stripes: the evolution of repetition in visual signal form. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 230, 407-419. (PDF)
  • Weir, A. A. S., Kenward, B., Chappell, J. & Kacelnik, A. 2004. Lateralization of tool use in New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B (Suppl.), 271, S344–S346. (PDF)
  • Kacelnik, A., Chappell, J., Weir, A. A. S. & Kenward, B. 2004. Tool use and manufacture in birds. In: Encyclopedia of animal behavior (Ed. by Bekoff, M.), pp. 1067-1069. Westport, CT, US: Greenwood Publishing Group.

Research Grants:

  • 2013 – 2018: Co-applicant. The social foundation of cognition. Knut och Alice Wallenbergs Stiftelse. £620,000 (8,000,000 Swedish crowns).
  • 2013 – 2017: Co-applicant. Developmental social cognition and action understanding. European Research Council: ERC-StG CACTUS 312292. £1,080,000 (13,900,000 Swedish crowns).
  • 2012 – 2015: Principle investigator. Early moral development: from infants’ prosocial preferences to co-operation between pre-schoolers. Swedish research council: 421-2011-1785. £210,000 (2,700,000 Swedish crowns).
  • 2009 – 2012: Principle investigator. A psychological perspective on early moral development. The Swedish foundation for humanities and social sciences: P2008-01039:1. £160,000 (2,040,000 Swedish crowns).


Publications from RADAR

  • Gredeback, G, Kaduk, K, Bakker, M, Gottwald, J, Ekberg, T, Elsner, C, Reid, V, Kenward, B (2015) The neuropsychology of infants' pro-social preferences. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 12 pp. 106-113. [summary page]
  • Kenward, B, Hellmer, K, Soderstrom Winter, L, Eriksson, M (2015) Four-year-olds' strategic allocation of resources: Attempts to elicit reciprocation correlate negatively with spontaneous helping. Cognition, 136 pp. 1-8. [summary page]
  • Kenward, B, Osth, T (2015) Five-Year-Olds Punish Antisocial Adults. Aggressive Behaviour, 41 (5). pp. 413-420. [summary page]
  • Kenward, B, Gredeback, G (2013) Infants Help a Non-Human Agent. PLoS ONE, 8 (9). pp. 1-6. [summary page]
  • Ben-Esmael, M, Mathew, M, Hart, BL, Hayatleh, K (0) Technique for increasing the output impedance of CMOS regulated cascode circuits.. Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers, 25 (10). [summary page]
  • Kenward, B, Koch, F, Forssman, L, Brehm, J, Tidemann, I, Sundqvist, A, Marciszko, C, Hermansen, TK, Heimann, M, Gredebäck, G (0) Saccadic reaction times in infants and adults: spatiotemporal factors, gender, and inter-laboratory variation. Developmental Psychology [summary page]
  • Shutts, K, Kenward, B, Falk, H, Ivegran, A, Fawcett, C (0) Early preschool environments and gender: Effects of gender pedagogy in Sweden. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 162 [summary page]
Ben Kenward